Biology I

Course Title: 
Biology I
Course Description: 

Biology Curriculum
Description of course
Biology is the study of life, including energy, systems, genetics, evolution and ecological topics. It is a lab science and can be applied towards the lab science required for graduation. Biology is a ‘hands on’ course and you will be performing many experiments using experimental design (scientific method). Individual assignments requiring reading and interpretation of text and ability to accurately record laboratory observations and draw reasonable conclusions is required for students in Biology. Emphasis is placed on laboratory skills and data analysis.

Course expectations
When the student has completed the course fulfilling all requirements, he/she will be able to:
1. Describe nature accurately.
2. Recognize, generate and state alternative hypotheses & learn basic laboratory techniques.
3. Generate logical predictions and conduct controlled experiments to test those predictions.
4. Have a basic knowledge of the natural world, including animals, plants, cells, and ecology.
5. Collect, organize and analyze data and develop reasonable conclusions from that data.

Laboratory Activities
Laboratory skills are an essential component of the course and will constitute more than 40% of the course. A total of 75% of the labs will be hands on activities performed at home, in the field, at the Phoenix Zoo and the Desert Botanical Gardens, or other agreed upon location suitable for the experiment. Documentation of the lab reports will include images of the procedures and results for each lab.

Resources: Students use content powered by Florida Virtual School for the online component of the course. The Scottsdale Unified School District’s adopted materials for textbooks and other resources will be made available to students. A variety of other online websites and references will also be used as notes in the activities and labs.

Students submit the results of all labs, homework, quizzes and tests electronically to the instructor. All final exams are taken in a supervised computer lab at the end of the course. Students must pass their final exam in order to get credit for the course. Students must complete all labs and turn in lab notebook prior to taking the final exam to receive lab credit for course.

Student Evaluation

Grading Scale

A 90% - 100%
B 80% - 89%
C 70% - 79%
D 60% - 69%
F 59% or below

Percentage of points:
Labs = 50% (lab notebook to earn lab credit)
Activities/Homework = 25%
Final Exam = 25% (must pass final to gain credit for course)

Required Materials:
• High speed internet connection (unless all online work done in school eLearning lab)
• Computer (see technical requirements below - unless all online work done in school eLearning lab)
• Headphones (for listening to the modules)
• Digital camera or phone with built in camera
• Various lab materials which will be listed for each lab. Kits can be mailed as needed for students that do not have the required materials available at home.

Labs:
Copies of all lab reports, pictures, graphs or other materials you have made will be compiled in a digital notebook. There will be at least three appropriate/relevant pictures for each lab. The individual labs are graded within each module as they are completed and turned in online. The lab notebook is reviewed as a whole at the end of the course to ensure that all of the labs are complete. The lab notebook is required in order to earn lab credit for the course.

HO = Hands On V = Virtual (online)
First Semester: 5410
Note: Lessons with graded LABS are listed below. There are additional lesson numbers that are not shown that are quizzes,textbook readings, and discussions, etc. ONLY the labs are listed below by Module.
Activities

Labs (HO or V)
Module 1: Welcome to BioVentures Travel Agency – Nature of Science
1.05 When in Rome – Scientific Method HO
1.06 – measuring Length, mass, volume and temperature HO
1.07 – Gathering data and graphing HO

Module 2: Extreme Eco Adventure Tour – Ecology
2.02 Water Weeds V
2.03 Elodea photosynthesis HO
2.03 Modeling Ecosystem V
2.03 Assessing Water Quality V
2.04 Special Properties of Water HO
2.07 Stream ecology V
2.08 Conservation in Your Neighborhood HO
Module 3:
Ancient Wonder Adventure – cell biology
3.04 Building a cell model HO
3.04 Cell Size HO
3.05 Modeling osmosis HO
3.05 Cellular Transport HO

Module 4:
Genetic Park - Genetics
4.02 Punnett Squares V
4.02 Lab Bench: Genetics of Organisms V
4.05 Human Characteristics Lab HO
4.08 Genetic Park V

Second Semester:
5411
Note: Lessons with graded LABS are listed below. There are additional lesson numbers that are not shown that are quizzes,textbook readings, and discussions, etc. ONLY the labs are listed below by Module.

Activities

Labs (HO or V)
Module 5:
Classification Cruise Adventure – Evolution, Classifications, Kingdoms
5.02 Fossils HO
5.03 Hudson Bay Company population lab HO
5.05 Dichotomous Key – leaves HO
5.05 Dichotomous Key – Desert Botanical Garden HO
5.07 Kingdoms of Life V

Module 6:
The Triple T Dude Ranch – viruses, bacteria, fungus
6.03 HHMI Virtual Bacteria ID lab V
6.03 Caught Dirty Handed HO
6.03 What Kills Germs? V
6.08 Growing Yeast HO
6.08 Mold Bread Experiment HO
Module 7:
Project BioDome – Plants, photosynthesis, cellular respiration
7.03 Flower Dissection HO
7.04 Seeds in the Field HO
7.05 Lab Bench – photosynthesis lab V
7.05 Lab Bench – cell respiration lab V

Module 8:
Animal Kingdom Safari Quest - Animals
8.02 Earthworm responsivness HO
8.05 Virtual Frog Dissection V
8.08 Phoenix Zoo animal Inventory HO
8.08 Phoenix Zoo Nature Explorer cards HO
8.09 Virtual Pig Dissection V

Sample lab #1 (Hands On)
Changes in earthworm responsiveness
Introduction
An animal’s responsiveness to a particular stimulus can often show changes in the short term. In these investigations you can study changes in the earthworm’s responsiveness to the stimulus of touch.
Lesson Organization
The worms have to be left for significant periods of time between stimulations in this investigation. Students could complete a study exercise during these times, although they need to pay some attention to their test subject (the worm) to ensure it does not experience dehydration or unnecessary stresses from being tested. If you have access to a suitable video camera, you could record the investigation in the first year and use the recording as evidence in future years.
Apparatus And Chemicals
Earth worms, in a suitable temporary vivarium, see notes 1 and 2
Materials:
Flat glass dish, 1
Water in a dropper bottle
Unsharpened pencil, 1
Stopwatch, 1
Liner for glass dish to simulate rough surface of inside of burrow, see note 3
Health & Safety
Take sensible hygiene precautions after handling worms or the soil in which they have been kept.
Technical Notes
1 Purchase the worms well in advance. Excessive handling will render the worms unresponsive and they must be allowed time to recover before the start of the experiment.
2 Keeping worms: Set up a box (or bucket) with ventilation holes and add some moist soil (not compacted) with some added leaf litter and/ or potting compost. Keep in a cool place and make sure it does not dry out. Set up smaller containers (such as beakers or plastic cups) containing pieces of moist sphagnum moss to hold the worms in immediately before and during practical investigations.
3 Liner to simulate the burrow: Mix some coarse grit or sand with a similar volume of artists’ clay or use some lightly compressed garden soil. Make a ring of liner around the edge of the glass dish, or in a ring within a crystallizing dish. If there are short tunnels in the liner long enough for the worm to burrow into, but not to hide itself completely, you can still stimulate the part of the worm’s body that is still exposed.
Ethical issues
Students should be careful to maintain an ethical attitude towards the subject animals and not a simply an instrumental one. Although they are simple organisms that may not 'suffer' in the same way as higher animals, they still deserve respect. Animals should be returned promptly to their natural environment or a suitable holding tank after being tested. This supports ethical approaches in field work where animals are returned to their habitat after observations have been made. Please see more information at http://asab.nottingham.ac.uk/ethics/guidelines.php - print out this link and include it in your lab notebook.
Procedure
Preparation
a Collect some worms for the investigation (note 1).
Investigation
b Moisten the inside of a flat glass dish with several drops of water, place the worm in it, and leave for at least 15 minutes under dim illumination.
c Stimulate the worm by touching it for one second with an unsharpened pencil, and note the response.
d Investigate the effect of repeated stimuli by giving the worm stimuli at fixed intervals of between 10 and 20 seconds, keeping the duration and strength of the stimuli as similar as possible. It is important that the worm is stimulated in about the same place on its body each time and that the light intensity is at a low and unvarying level. Observe and record the worm’s response each time. Continue until the worm has ceased to respond to five stimuli in succession.
e Once the worm has become unresponsive to a particular stimulus, continue to stimulate in a new position on the body. Record all responses as before.
f Allow an unresponsive worm a period of 10-20 minutes without stimulation. Stimulate it again and if the response has recovered, continue as in step d. If recovery does not take place, allow a longer rest period.
g If possible, repeat the test procedures on subsequent days with the same individuals, returning them to a suitable holding tank in between tests.
The effect of dual stimulation on responsiveness
h The contact of the worm’s body with the walls of its burrow is a source of stimulation that operates when specific stimuli are applied. Repeat the procedure as in step d above using a worm whose body wall is in contact with the rough surface. As much as possible of the body wall should be touching the surface. Stimulate as before, recording the responses until the worm ceases to respond.
i Vary the light intensity to see if this modifies the worm’s responsiveness. Record how you were able to change the light intensity without a large change in temperature

Sample lab 2 (Hands On)
Modeling Mitosis
Before You Begin
The cell cycle includes all of the phases in the life of a cell. There is a repeating sequence of cellular growth and division during the life of an organism. Mitosis is one of the phases in the cell cycle. Mitosis is the process by which the material in a cell’s nucleus is divided during cell reproduction. In this lab, you will build a model that will help you understand the events of mitosis. You can also use the model to demonstrate the effects of nondisjunction and mutations.

Answer these questions on a separate piece of paper in complete sentences
1. Write a definition for each boldface term in the paragraph above and for the following terms: chromatid, centromere, spindle fiber, cytokinesis, homologous.
2. Where in the human body do cells undergo mitosis?
3. How does a cell prepare to divide during interphase of the cell cycle?
4. How is the cell cycle controlled?

Procedure
1) Cell cycle: Create a full page (8 ½ X 11) labeled diagram of the cell cycle. Describe what happens in each stage.
2) Mitosis: Using different colors of yarn (to represent the homologous chromosomes – one from dad, one from mom), create 4 cards showing each step of mitosis. Glue the chromosomes in place, draw the parts of the cell that are relevant to mitosis, labeling all parts. Use 2 homologous pairs of chromosomes.
3) Write the name of the step on the back along with a description of what occurs during that stage.

Analyze and Conclude
Answer these questions on a separate piece of paper in complete sentences
1. Analyzing Results How do the nuclei you made by modeling mitosis compare with the nucleus of the model cell you started with? Explain your result.
2. Evaluating Methods How could you modify your model to better illustrate the process of mitosis?
3. Recognizing Patterns How does the genetic makeup of the cells that result from mitosis compare with the genetic makeup of the original cell?
4. Inferring Conclusions How is mitosis important?

Sample lab #3 (Virtual Lab)
LabBench Activity from “Classic: The Biology Place”
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab5/intro.html

Sample lab #4 (Hands On)
Investigating Inherited Traits: Variations of the Human Face
(Ugly Baby Lab)

Introduction
Read the entire investigation before you begin.
Heredity is the passing on of traits, or characteristics, from parent to offspring. The genetic makeup of an individual is known as its genotype. The physical traits you can observe in a person are his or her phenotype. Phenotype is a result of the genotype and the individual’s interaction with the environment. The units of heredity are called genes. Genes are found on the chromosomes in a cell. An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene. When the two alleles of a pair are the same, the genotype is homozygous, or pure. When the two alleles are not the same, the genotype is heterozygous, or hybrid. In nature, specific combinations of alleles happen only by chance. Some alleles are expressed only when the dominant allele is absent. These alleles produce recessive phenotypes. Alleles that are expressed when the genotype is either homozygous or heterozygous produce dominant phenotypes. An allele that codes for a dominant trait is represented by a capital letter, while an allele that codes for a recessive trait is represented by a lowercase letter. Sometimes when the genotype is heterozygous, neither the dominant nor recessive phenotype occurs. In this case, called incomplete dominance or codominance, an intermediate phenotype is produced. In humans, the sex of a person is determined by the combination of two sex chromosomes. People who have two X chromosomes (XX) are females, while those who have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY) are males. In this investigation, you will see how different combinations of alleles produce different characteristics.

Problem How are traits inherited?

Pre-Lab Discussion. Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.
1. What does a single side of the coin represent?
2. What are the chances that any coin or disk tossed will land heads up?
3. How is a coin toss like the selection of a particular allele?
4. For the traits in this investigation, do all heterozygous pairs of alleles produce an intermediate phenotype?
5. Can you accurately determine a person’s genotype by observing his or her phenotype? Explain.

Materials (per pair) 2 coins, colored pencils

Procedure
1. Obtain two coins. Label one coin “Dad” and the other coin “Mom”. You will flip your coins to determine the traits in a hypothetical offspring.
2. Start by determining the sex of the offspring. Flip the coins. If both coins land the same side up, the offspring is a female. If the coins land different sides up, the offspring is a male. Record the sex of the offspring in the blank on the worksheet.
3. For the rest of the coin tosses you will make, heads will represent the dominant allele and tails will represent the recessive allele.
4. You should now flip your coins at the same time to determine the phenotype of the first trait, the shape of the face. Note: The coins should be flipped only once for each trait. After each flip, record the trait of your offspring on the appropriate line on the worksheet.
5. Continue to flip the coins for each trait listed in the table in Figure 1. Note: Some information in Figure 1 has been simplified. Some listed traits are actually produced by two or more genes.
6. Using the recorded traits, draw the facial features for your offspring on a separate piece of unlined paper in color.


Analysis and Conclusions
Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.
1. Calculating What percent chance did you and your partner have of “producing” a male offspring? A female offspring? Explain your answer.
2. Predicting Would you expect the other pairs of students in your class to have an offspring completely similar to yours? Explain your answer.
3. Inferring What are the possible genotypes of the parents of a child who has wavy hair (Hh)?
4. Classifying List all the traits in this investigation that showed incomplete dominance.
5. Drawing Conclusions Do you think that anyone in your class has all the same genetic traits that you have? Explain your answer.
6. Drawing Conclusions How might it be possible for you to show a trait when none of your relatives shows it?
Relatives might be heterozygous; one or more masked recessive genes could be passed to you.
As a homozygous recessive for that trait, you would display the recessive trait.
Going Further
Repeat this investigation with your partner to “produce” your second offspring. After completing all of your tosses, make a drawing of the offspring. Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.
1. What similarities exist between your first and second offspring?
2. What differences?
3. Would you expect a third offspring to resemble either the first or the second offspring? Explain your reason.

Turn in the following:
1. The worksheet for both your ugly babies 
2. The drawing of the ugly baby you drew
3. The answers to Pre-Lab Discussion, Analysis and Conclusions and Going Further (make sure you note which answers are to which set of questions). All answers must be in your own words.

4. Name ___________________________________________ Period __________

Partner’s name ______________________________________________

Data Table for Baby #1 Baby’s name
Trait Dad’s gene Mom’s gene Baby’s genotype Baby’s phenotype
Sex X
1. Face shape
2. Cleft chin
3. Hair type
4. Widow’s peak
5. Eye spacing
6. Eye shape
7. Eye position
8. Eye size
9. Length of eyelashes
10. Eyebrow shape
11. Eyebrow position
12. Size of nose
13. Shape of lips
14. Size of ears
15. Size of mouth
16. Freckles
17. Dimples

Baby’s total genotype: ______________________________________________________________

Describe what your baby will look like in words (their phenotype):

Data Table for Baby #2 Baby’s name
Trait Dad’s gene Mom’s gene Baby’s genotype Baby’s phenotype
Sex X
1. Face shape
2. Cleft chin
3. Hair type
4. Widow’s peak
5. Eye spacing
6. Eye shape
7. Eye position
8. Eye size
9. Length of eyelashes
10. Eyebrow shape
11. Eyebrow position
12. Size of nose
13. Shape of lips
14. Size of ears
15. Size of mouth
16. Freckles
17. Dimples

Baby’s total genotype: ______________________________________________________________

Describe what your baby will look like in words (their phenotype):

School Information: 
District: 
Scottsdale Unified School District - FOR ALL HIGH SCHOOLS
State: 
Arizona
City: 
Phoenix
Address: 
3811 N. 44th Street
Zip code: 
85018
Yes

Requested competency code:

Approved: 
Approved: 
Yes
Date: 
Thursday, January 19, 2012

Approved competency code:

Denied: 
Deferred: