Plant Science

Course Title: 
Agri Science I - PS
Course Description: 

Principles of Agricultural Science – Plant
Detailed Course Outline
Unit 1 – Worlds of Opportunity
Lesson 1.1 A World without Enough Plants
1. Organization and record keeping are important to the success of a plant business.
2. Many people work in a variety of agricultural enterprises to produce food, fiber, and fuel, which are
essential to daily life.
3. Plants are used to sustain human existence by providing many essential products, such as food, fiber,
fuel, and medicine.
4. The many different types of plant industries provide career opportunities in plant production and
Unit 2 – Mineral Soils
Lesson 2.1 Understanding Soil Properties
1. The proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil determine the texture and influence soil use decisions.
2. Soil permeability is influenced by the texture and structure of soil horizons.
3. Organisms found in soils improve soil quality.
4. Soil structure and texture influence water holding capacity, drainage, and erosion.
5. Organic matter affects the porosity and water holding capacity of soils.
6. Internal drainage, evidenced by color, mottling and permeability, affects soil management decisions.
7. The structure and color of the soil profile determine the effective depth of a soil.
Lesson 2.2 Soil Chemistry
1. Soil pH determines the availability of nutrients required for plant growth and health.
2. The optimal pH and salinity level required for plant growth varies among plant species and the levels
are adjusted with the use of chemical treatments.
3. Soil salinity concentration determines how well plants uptake water, and as a result the ability of plants
to absorb the available necessary nutrients.
4. Testing of soil samples detect imbalances related to soil chemistry factors.
Unit 3 – Soilless Systems
Lesson 3.1 Mixing Media
1. Potting media has specific qualities suited for container crops, such as using lightweight and
inexpensive materials that provide the essential components needed for drainage and porosity.
2. There are a variety of ingredients used in potting soil that provide permeability, porosity, and fertility
needed for container crops.
Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education © 2015 ASP – Detailed Course Outline – Page 2
3. Media is sold in cubic feet or cubic yard increments and calculation of usage is an important skill for
greenhouse and nursery production.
Lesson 3.2 Hydroponics
1. Growing crops with a hydroponic method relies on using water with or without potting media instead of
mineral soil to provide the necessary growth requirements.
2. There are many considerations to examine when choosing between hydroponic production and
traditional crop production, such as the spread of disease and increased equipment costs.
3. Hydroponic crop production has advantages over traditional cropping systems, such as efficient use of
space and resources.
4. Careful management and monitoring of water quality in a hydroponic system are necessary to ensure
plant health.
Unit 4 – Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 4.1 Cells: Life’s Smallest Units
1. There are different classifications of cells based on their utility.
2. Plant cells are comprised of many parts that have essential functions for the survival of plant tissue,
such as respiration. (dependent relationship among organelles)
3. Plant cells contain microscopic organelles specific to plant functions.
4. Cells use water, oxygen, and glucose to produce energy and metabolic by-products of carbon dioxide
and water.
Lesson 4.2 The Radicle Root
1. The four major parts of a plant are the root, stem, leaves, and flower; and their functions are vital for
plant health and growth.
2. The root has specific anatomical features responsible for anchoring the plant in the soil.
3. Plant roots use differentiated cells that perform specific functions in the root, such as the absorption of
water and dissolved nutrients.
4. Plants use the process of osmosis, influenced by turgidity of plant tissues, for the uptake of water and
dissolved nutrients required for plant growth.
Lesson 4.3 Stems, Stalks, and Trunks
1. Stems of plants provide physical support, storage of nutrients, and necessary pathways for
translocation of materials throughout the plant.
2. The majority of plant growth takes place in meristematic tissue.
3. Environmental conditions, such as temperature and precipitation are reflected in the growth rates of
plants and evidence of those conditions can be found in woody stems.
Lesson 4.4 Leave it to Leaves
1. The understanding of leaf characteristics assists agricultural scientists in identifying species or varieties
of plants.
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2. Leaves are comprised of several parts that have differences in physical characteristics, such as shape
and venation patterns.
3. Leaf cells contain a specialized pigment known as chlorophyll that is used by the plant to harvest
radiant energy from the sun.
4. Leaves produce food in the form of sugars that fuel the metabolic functions of a plant.
5. Leaves produce and store food.
Lesson 4.5 Flower Power
1. The parts of the flower are the mechanisms for pollination and fertilization and are used by a plant to
complete sexual reproduction.
2. Concept maps assist in structuring ideas or concepts and illustrating the various connections between
those ideas.
3. Flowers are classified as either complete or incomplete based on the inclusion of either male or female
parts, or both.
4. Flowering structures are precursors for seeds, seed pods, and fruit structures.
Unit 5 – Taxonomy
Lesson 5.1 Sorting Out Plants
1. Physiological categories are used to identify and select plants.
2. Plant parts are used as visual clues for differentiating between plant species often referred to as plant
3. Classification is based on morphology that uses plant forms, such as parts, size, color, and usefulness
to sort and group into classes with similar features.
4. Plants and animals are categorized using a hierarchical system to group organisms by anatomical or
physiological similarities.
Lesson 5.2 Plant Names
1. Plants are classified and named based upon distinguishing characteristics, such as their physical
2. The scientific names for plants consist of Latin words representing descriptive features associated with
the plant.
3. All plants are named using a binomial system, which is a two-word system for naming plants with the
first word being the generic name and the second word being the specific name.
4. Plant species are often subdivided into varieties and cultivars that will include additional names after
the genus and species.
Unit 6 – The Growing Environment
Lesson 6.1 Plant Food
1. Plants obtain required nutrients from the soil provided the soil has the available nutrients.
2. Nutrient deficiencies are detected in plants by the examination of anatomical features and chemical test
of tissues.
3. Nutrients can be added to the soil in various ways, such as chemical fertilizers, animal wastes, and
organic matter.
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4. Plants require sixteen nutrients for optimal growth and development.
Lesson 6.2 All Wet
1. Different substances that plant containers are made from will affect the rate of water loss by
evaporation in potted plants.
2. Water is used by plants for the translocation of materials within the vascular systems of plants and used
to complete the photosynthesis process.
3. Water is used to help cool the plant during periods of above optimal temperature conditions through the
process of transpiration.
4. Water requirements and tolerances vary among plant species.
5. The wilting point is a critical physiological stage that if exceeded can cause permanent damage to the
health and physical appearance of plants.
Lesson 6.3 Lighting it Up
1. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll and used by plants to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
and oxygen through the process of photosynthesis.
2. Growth of plants is altered by light intensity and poor light exposure can create undesirable physical
3. Photosynthetic rate is affected by environmental factors, such as light exposure, availability of carbon
dioxide, and temperature.
4. The level of red and blue-violet light emitted in a spectrum determines the quality of a light source
intended for plant use.
5. Plants respond to the length of daily dark periods to trigger physiological processes, such as flowering.
Lesson 6.4 Chilly Lilies
1. Plant maturity is determined by the accumulation of thermal units during a growing season.
2. Temperature affects the metabolism rate of plants including transpiration, respiration, and
3. Temperature is a principle determinant for plant dormancy of some seeds, bulbs, specialized roots, and
species of perennial plants.
4. Plants are classified as cool season or warm season plants based on their temperature requirements.
Unit 7 – Plant Reproduction
Lesson 7.1 Plant Genetics
1. Mitosis has five distinct phases necessary for cell division.
2. Plant egg cells require meiosis and mitosis for development.
3. Fertilization, a necessary step for seed development, occurs when pollen unites with an egg cell.
4. Dominant and recessive genes determine the phenotypic characteristics of plants.
5. Hybrid, or crossbred, plants are an important source of agronomic commodities.
Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education © 2015 ASP – Detailed Course Outline – Page 5
Lesson 7.2 Pollination and Dispersion
1. Flower pollination often requires natural agents, such as wind, water, insects, and vertebrates.
2. Plants use seeds to multiply species exponentially over time.
3. Identification and classification of plant species often relies on special structures that protect and
support seeds.
4. Plants require methods of seed dispersal to ensure their survival in nature.
Lesson 7.3 Kernels of Life
1. The germinating seed has visible anatomical parts and structures from embryo to seedling stages that
are used to identify the plant as either a monocotyledon or a dicotyledon.
2. Plant seeds convert starch into glucose by the use of enzymes during the germination process.
3. Germination rate in seeds is largely determined by the proper balance of environmental conditions,
such as temperature, oxygen, and water.
4. Not all seeds are viable and therefore do not have the potential to germinate.
5. Dormancy is a strategy plants utilize to ensure some offspring will germinate at optimal times and
plants rely on special treatments, such as light, cold temperatures, and scarification to break seed
Lesson 7.4 Plant Multiplication
1. Some plant hybrids will produce seeds with genetic characteristics that are inconsistent with the parent
plant genotype; therefore, asexual propagation methods are required for reproducing the desired traits.
2. Using asexual propagation methods, such as grafting, division, budding, layering, or cuttings are
efficient ways to produce new plants exhibiting desired characteristics of a parent plant.
3. Safe tool and equipment use is required to perform asexual propagation on plants to avoid personal
Optional Lesson 7.5 Evolutionary Ideas
1. The diversity of organisms is the result of evolutionary adaptation.
2. Plants today have descended from common ancestors.
3. Natural selection is an involuntary process of evolution where species adapt to their environment.
4. Genetic mutations are separate events that can lead to change in the characteristics of a species.
Unit 8 – Surviving a Harsh Environment
Lesson 8.1 Pesky Bugs and Plants
1. Pests have negative effects on plant growth, such as yield and quality.
2. Plant pests include several organisms including insects, mollusks, nematodes, vertebrates, and weeds.
3. Proper detection of symptoms can determine plant pest threats.
4. Biological, chemical, and mechanical methods as well as cultural practices are options for eradication
or deterring pests.
5. An Integrated Pest Management plan assures that the management of pests is economically and
environmentally sound.
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6. Life cycles of plant pests must be considered prior to employing proper control measures.
Lesson 8.2 Diving into Diseases
1. Plant disease-causing agents, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses cause detrimental health effects on
2. Plant diseases cause visible symptoms in plant growth, such as defoliation, abscesses, growths, and
decaying of plant tissue.
3. Knowledge of disease prevention and treatment is important to protect plants from infection.
4. Plant disease-causing agents are microscopic and damage plants in various ways.
Unit 9 – Crop Production and Marketing
Lesson 9.1 Tools of Plant Production
1. Specialized equipment is required for soil tillage and the planting, harvesting, and transporting of
agronomic crops.
2. The growing environment for plants may be altered by structures, such as greenhouses, to provide
optimal temperature requirements.
3. Methods of irrigation vary and each method has advantages and disadvantages related to the impact
on the environment.
Lesson 9.2 Planting Seeds of Fortune
1. Agronomy, floriculture, forestry, and nursery and landscape are the four major classifications of plantbased
2. Product, placement, price, and promotion are the four keys to marketing products.
3. There are many products produced within plant-based industries and all require careful planning to
ensure the marketability of the product.
4. Basic steps, such as analyze the situation, decide on your objective, develop a plan, and measure the
results are key components of a business plan.

School Information: 
Buckeye Union high School
1000 E. Narramore
Zip code: 

Requested competency code:


Approved competency code:

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Please submit a new course approval for this course that provides more details on the lab work completed for this course.