SC402RS

## Pre-requisite

Physics A, Algebra II, Geometry

## Course description

Physics B Syllabus

Course Description
Physics B is the continuation of the introductory course; Physics A. Physics B investigates the energy of waves and their fields; electromagnetism; nuclear reactions; and subatomic physics. These introductory courses in physics familiarize you with the topics of interest in physics research and make connections to the everyday world of physical laws and phenomena. This course is fairly rigorous; but offers you support in the way of audiovisual presentations; interactive mentoring; and video labs. You will be asked to perform laboratory experiments and solve calculations on your own; but with instructor support. Finally; you will discover that the discussion topics will broaden your outlook toward the relevance of physics in the world today.
Course Objectives
‚Ä¢ Familiarity with the issues of current physics research on an introductory level
Topics to be Covered
Unit 1: Waves and Light
Unit Description
Light and sound are wave phenomena that result from the effect of energy on matter. As energy; two waves may occupy the same position at the same time; which matter never does. Waves can be longitudinal such as sound waves; or transverse such as light. Both sound and light; as waves; can be manipulated through reflection; refraction; and amplification; but sound and light are different; also. Sound requires a medium through which to travel while light can travel in a vacuum. Light; along with all other electromagnetic waves; generates fields of energy that travel at maximum speed through the vacuums of space. However; they slow down and refract when encountering a denser medium.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Identify the wave characteristics of sound and light
‚Ä¢ Relate musical sounds to standing waves of vibrating objects.
‚Ä¢ Describe how electromagnetic waves react to energy changes.
Lesson 1 : Sound
Lesson Description
Pitch; Doppler Effect; infrasonic and ultrasonic; intensity and human thresholds; decibels
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 2: Harmonics
Lesson Description
Fundamental frequencies; harmonic series; timbre; beat
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Analyze the general relationships among force and motion in objects undergoing uniform harmonic motion
Lesson 3: Electromagnetism
Lesson Description
Electromagnetic spectrum; specular and diffuse reflection; real and virtual images
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Quantify the relationships among the frequency; wavelength; and speed of light.
Lesson 4: Optics
Lesson Description
Concave and convex mirrors; magnification; reference rays; reflecting telescopes
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 5: Color
Lesson Description
Color mixing; additive and subtractive; polarization of light
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Unit 2: Optics
Unit Description
The manipulation of light is of great importance to humans. Our information on the world around us comes primarily from what light we sense. It is crucial that we see clearly. Our eyes contain a natural lens; which focuses the light onto receptors in our eyes; but occasionally artificial lenses may also be necessary. However; refraction through lenses is only one of the tools of optics. Light can be reflected; interfered with; and diffracted; as well. And in the last three decades; lasers have become an integral part of modern technology; enabling society to communicate faster; more accurately; and with greater power than ever before. If the name had not already been taken; the modern era could be called the Age of Enlightenment.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Quantify the qualities of reflection and diffraction of light; including the effect of lenses.
‚Ä¢ Categorize light as diffuse; monochromatic; coherent; or other special types.
Lesson 6: Refraction
Lesson Description
Refraction; wave model; refractive index; Snell‚Äôs law; apparent objects
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 7: Lenses
Lesson Description
Focal length; focal point; converging & diverging lenses; human eye; magnification
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 8: Reflection and Interference
Lesson Description
Total internal reflection; critical angles; interference; two-slit pattern; constructive & destructive equations
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 9: Diffraction; Etc.
Lesson Description
Diffraction; maxima and minima; spectrometer; gratings
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Lesson 10: Lasers
Lesson Description
Coherent light; lasers; CD‚Äôs; digital vs. analog; signals and codes
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways that energy is transferred from one system to another.
Unit 3: Electrostatics
Unit Description
Electrical charge is a basic property of matter. Not all matter carries a net charge; but that is only because most charged particles have a balancing charge nearby. When the charge is not neutralized; it is a powerful particle; exerting electric fields all around it. Charge is xenophilic; meaning that opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. Charge is also similar to gravity in that its strength decreases as the square of the distance between charges. Some think of electrostatics as a mild force; making our hair rise or our clothes cling; but some of the most violent releases of energy on Earth occur when lightning tries to balance charges in the air and on the ground. Electrostatics can put on a grand display.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the quality of electrical charge and its interactions under Coulomb‚Äôs law.
‚Ä¢ Describe electrical fields and calculate strengths of fields.
‚Ä¢ Understand potential difference and how it creates electrical currents.
Lesson 11: Electrostatics
Lesson Description
Electric charge; point charges; Millikan‚Äôs oil drop experiment; induction; polarization
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the properties of electric charge and the conservation of electric charge.
Lesson 12: Coulomb‚Äôs Law
Lesson Description
Coulomb‚Äôs law; superposition; relation to gravitation
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Using Coulomb‚Äôs law; predict how the electrical force will change when the distance between two point charges changes or the charge of one of them changes.
Lesson 13: Electric Fields
Lesson Description
Field strength equation; drawing lines and charges; conductors in equilibrium
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Using Coulomb‚Äôs law; predict how the electrical force will change when the distance between two point charges changes or the charge of one of them changes.
Lesson 14: Electric Potential
Lesson Description
Electric potential energy; potential difference; point charge; point infinity; batteries
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the relationship among electric potential; current; and resistance in an ohmic system.
Lesson 15: Electricity
Lesson Description
Capacitance; potential energy equation
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the way electrical energy is stored in a system.
Unit 4: Electrical Current
Unit Description
When electrical charges move; they become more interesting. Moving charges constitute electrical currents. Electrical currents not only power our machines; but they create magnetic fields; as well. And the favor is returned; changing magnetic fields create electric current. One of the surprises of the nineteenth century was the relationship between magnetism and electricity. Magnetism had been known for centuries; but electricity was a newly discovered force. When the two were shown to be different aspects of the same thing; the scientific world was surprised; yet society quickly took advantage of the discovery to power up the machines of the age with electrical current. Electrical current has similarities with other types of current; notably water currents. There must be a driving force; a measure of flow; and a resistance to the flow. In electricity; these are measured in volts; amperes; and ohms; respectively.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Identify and use the relationships between potential difference; resistance; and current.
‚Ä¢ Describe the ways of creating electrical current and the properties of the currents they produce.
‚Ä¢ Identify and analyze the properties of different types of electrical circuits.
‚Ä¢ Describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism; including electromagnetic induction.
Lesson 16: Resistance
Lesson Description
Ohm‚Äôs law; resistance factors; electric current equation
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the relationships among electric potential difference; resistance; and current in an ohmic system.
Lesson 17: Electrical Current
Lesson Description
Electric power; AC vs. DC; KWH to joules; schematic diagrams; EMF
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Quantify the relationships among electric potential difference; resistance; and current in an ohmic system.
Lesson 18: Electrical Circuits
Lesson Description
Current in series; current in parallel; fuses; circuit breakers; circuit analysis
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Calculate quantitative relationships associated with the conservation of electrical energy.
Lesson 19: Magnetism
Lesson Description
Magnetic poles; magnetic fields; domains; Earth‚Äôs magnetic field; declination
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways in which matter and energy interact.
Lesson 20: Electromagnetic Induction
Lesson Description
Electromagnetism; magnetic fields of loops; wires; and solenoids; right-hand rule; galvanometer; forces
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe various ways in which matter and energy interact.
Unit 5: A New Look at the Atom
Unit Description
Atomic theory has been considered since ancient times; but its details have been sketchy; at best. Democritus and Dalton thought the atoms to be small spheres that could not be further divided. J. J. Thomson concluded that the atom had areas of positive and negative charge; which showed that the atom was not the smallest particle. Rutherford found out that the atom was mostly empty space. Bohr realized that the electrons had only certain energy levels where their orbits were stable. The reason for the discrete energy levels; de Broglie found out; was that the electron was a wave; and could only form standing waves at certain energy levels. Heisenberg found out that there was a limit to what could be known about the electron; but Schrodinger and others bypassed that limit by defining where the electron probably was. The result is the quantum mechanical model of the atom; which is a small; positively-charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons in discrete; definable orbitals with particular energies. And we are just beginning to see what the atom may be.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the way that electrical current is generated using magnetic fields.
‚Ä¢ Describe field energies and their action on charged particles.
‚Ä¢ Describe the observations that led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
‚Ä¢ Describe the relationship between particles and waves at the atomic level.
Lesson 21: Induced Current
Lesson Description
Lenz‚Äôs law; Faraday‚Äôs equation; generators; electric motors; mutual inductance and transformers
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the relationships among electric potential difference; resistance; and current in an ohmic system.
Lesson 22: Energy Fields
Lesson Description
Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic waves; Herschel experiment
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Quantify the relationships among electric potential difference; resistance; and current in an ohmic system.
Lesson 23: Quantum Mechanics
Lesson Description
Blackbody radiation; ultraviolet catastrophe; photoelectric effect; Compton shift; photon energy
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Explain the relationship between the wavelength of light absorbed or released by the atom or molecule and the transfer of a discrete amount of energy.
Lesson 24: Atomic Models
Lesson Description
Rutherford‚Äôs experiment; Bohr model; absorption and emission spectra
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the historical development of models of the atom.
Lesson 25: Wave-Particle Duality
Lesson Description
Light‚Äôs dual nature; nature of electrons; Uncertainty principle; matter wave equations
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Explain the details of atomic structure.
Unit 6: The Particle Zoo
Unit Description
As quantum mechanics answered many questions; many new ones emerged. New ways of looking at the atom led to new ways of investigating its parts. As research proceeded; the number of new particles began to multiply until there were so many that the array was referred to as "the particle zoo." After a decade or so of looking at the zoo; some order began to be seen; and a new model; called the Standard Model; was created to explain the number of particles and how they relate. The Standard Model has been very successful; and has been verified in many ways; but two particles that it predicts have not yet been discovered: the graviton and the Higgs boson. It is anticipated that higher energies will uncover the Higgs boson; but the search for the graviton is having more difficulty. And just as the particle zoo is about complete; the existence of dark matter and energy adds much more to the researchers' agenda. There is still plenty of work for physicists to do.
Unit Objectives
‚Ä¢ Explain the forces acting on the nucleus of the atom; including radioactive decay; fission; and fusion.
‚Ä¢ Explain how the Standard Model changes the way that matter is classified.
Lesson 26: The Nucleus of the Atom
Lesson Description
Atomic mass and number; isotopes; strong nuclear force; stability and ratios; nuclear binding energy
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe the way in which nuclear energy is stored in a system.
Lesson Description
Alpha; beta; and gamma decay; nuclear reactions; positron emissions; decay series; half-life
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Describe ways in which nuclear energy is transferred among systems.
Lesson 28: Fusion and Fission
Lesson Description
Nuclear fission; nuclear fusion; chain reaction; critical mass; reactors; fusion mechanisms
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Explain the details of atomic structure.
Lesson 29: New Vocabulary
Lesson Description
Four fundamental interactions; quarks; Standard Model; atomic forces
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Explain the details of atomic structure.
Lesson 30: Finally!
Lesson Description
Final exam and case study discussion
Lesson Objectives
‚Ä¢ Demonstrate mastery over the concepts of introductory physics.
Assessment of Concepts and Skills/Evaluation of Student Progress
Pretests
Pretests assess a student‚Äôs prior knowledge of the content in a unit. These questions are taken directly from the unit exam but do not count toward a student‚Äôs grade.
Workbook Questions
Workbook questions are presented to students after most activities containing content. They assess a student‚Äôs knowledge of the content immediately after they view/learn the content. Workbook questions typically include multiple choice; true/false; and/or fill-in-the-blank questions.
Checkpoints
Checkpoints assess a student‚Äôs knowledge of the concepts taught in a lesson. Typically; multiple choice and true/false questions are presented.
Exams (including Vocabulary Exam)
Exams assess a student‚Äôs knowledge of the concepts taught in a unit. Typically; multiple choice and true/false questions are presented.
The Vocabulary Exam assesses a student‚Äôs knowledge of several key terms taught throughout the entire course. Typically; multiple choice and true/false questions are presented.
Final Exam
The Final Exam assesses a student‚Äô knowledge of all of the content taught throughout the entire course. Typically; multiple choice and true/false questions are presented.
Discussion Boards
Discussions assess a student‚Äôs knowledge of the content taught in each lesson of a unit through answering questions and discussing the content with fellow students.
Unit 1
‚ÄúLiving with Waves‚Äù discusses the range of energies associated with waves and how they affect human life and society.
Unit 2
‚ÄúLight and Dimensions‚Äù discusses the way that three-dimensional information is gathered by a two-dimensional retinal array; including shading and parallax.
Unit 3
‚ÄúComputer Chemistry‚Äù discusses the movement of electrons through a computer chip; creating diodes and switches; which process data in binary form.
Unit 4
‚ÄúThe Electric Grid‚Äù discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the electric power grid; and the options for accommodating smaller sources of electrical power on the grid or apart from it.
Unit 5
‚ÄúThe Elusive Electron‚Äù discusses the history of electrical research and how it spawned numerous other theories and technological breakthroughs.
Unit 6
‚ÄúFermions and Bosons‚Äù discusses the history of the Standard Model and the major particles it describes.
Unit Projects
Unit 1: 1) Resonant Harmonics; 2)Image Length of a Lens

Unit 2: 1)Snell‚Äôs Law; 2) Ripple Tank

Unit 3: 1) Charge and Electrostatics; 2) Brightness and Voltage

Unit 4: 1)Voltage and Wattage; 2) Detecting Magnetic Field Lines

Unit 5: 1) AM vs FM‚ÄîDigital vs Analog; 2)Photoelectric Effect

Unit 6: 1)Dark Matter Research ( 2 period research activity)

United States

Arizona

Chandler

## High school

Primavera Online High School

2471 N. Arizona Ave.

85225

Lab Science

Yes

• LPHY
• Physics

need lab info

Yes