## Course title

Sci400A and Sci400B## Pre-requisite

Grades 10,11 or 12, Algebra 1, Geometry and Biology## Course description

This Physics course is designed to expose students to the applications and principals of Physics. Students will discover the contributions of geniuses like Galileo; Newton; and Einstein by learning about concepts theories and laws theat govern the interaction of matter; energy and fores.

Semester one Content will include:

Theory vs law

Science vs Pseudoscoencec

Measurement Techniques

Graphing Data using Graphical Analysis

Experimental Techniques

Lab Design

Average and Instantaneous Speed

Problem Solving Methods

Vector and scalar Quantities

Equation Manipulation

Average Velocity

Average Acceleration

Freefall

Newton's Laws

Coulomb's Law

Mass and Weight

Free Body Diagrams

Uniform Circular Motion

Angular

Momentum

Projectile Motion

Semester 2 content will include:

Temperature and Heat

Conservation of Thermal Energy

Kinetic and Potential Energy

Work and Power

Conductors and Insulators

Electrical Fields and Forces

Simple Circuits

Components

Charges

Charge Motion

Schematic Diagrams

Series Circuits

Parallel Circuits

Simple harmonic Motion

Pendulum Equation

Atomic Theory

Snell's Law

Wave Equation

Refraction

Lenses

Lens Equation

Fundamental Particles

Duality of Light

Radioactivity

Cosmology

Labs will be conducted via hands-on and virtual activities.:

Scientific Method Lab: To practice scientific method and manipulating variables

Accuracy and Precision Lab: To explore densities of irregularly shaped objects all while applying the significant figure rules in measurement

Electron Arrangement: To investigate the behavior of electrons as they relate to light production

Periodic Trends: To utilize graphing to determine atomic radius trends

Lewis Structures Lab: To experiment on different solutions to determine similarities and differences between ionic and covalent compounds relating to their respective structures

Intermolecular Forces: To identify different structures in covalent compounds

Molar Mass of Compounds: To explore laboratory techniques used to determine molar mass of compounds

Chemical Reactions: To investigate the five types of chemical reactions while practicing writing chemical reactions and observing the Law of Conservation of Mass

Percent Yield Lab: To practice laboratory techniques in determining percent yield of a compound

Gas Laws: To explore the relationships between pressure and volume (Boyle‚Äôs Law) and volume and temperature (Charles‚Äôs Law) by graphing

Mixtures and Solutions Lab: To discover how different solutions affect solubility and chromatography

Calorimetry Lab: To discover heat exchanges between the system and surroundings using a calorimeter

pH Titration Lab: To identify the pH of an unknown acid using titration.

Equilibrium Lab: To investigate how equilibrium occurs during a chemical reaction using common; everyday objects such as pennies or candy

Half Life and Radioactive Decay: To visualize how radioactive decay usually occurs exponentially using everyday objects and graphing

List all lab equipment used; including but not limited to household items (for example; microscope; beakers; ramps; dissection equipment; etc.)

Scientific Method Lab: design your own experiment using the scientific method

Accuracy and Precision Lab: (Virtual Exercise) graduated cylinder; electronic balance; pencil; scientific calculator; oddly shaped objects

Electron Arrangement: (Virtual Exercise) Bunsen burner; test tube; test tube rack; Ba sample; Ca sample; Na sample; Rb sample; K sample; Li sample; HCl solution; prism

Periodic Trends: graphical analysis; pencil; scientific calculator

Lewis Structures Lab: (Virtual Exercise) hot plate; beaker; 4 unknown solutions; electric current

Intermolecular Forces: pencil; paper; toothpicks; colored marshmallows or gumdrops

Molar Mass of Compounds: (Virtual Exercise) evaporating dish; beaker; wire gauze; granulated Tin; HNO3 solution; ring stand; ring clamp; Bunsen burner; scientific calculator

Chemical Reactions: (Virtual Exercise) Fe; CuSO4 solution; beaker; test tube; test tube clamp; scoopula; Pb(NO3)2 solution; KI solution; dropper; Mg (s); HCl solution; battery; bunsen burner; water (H2O)

Percent Yield Lab: (Virtual Exercise) evaporating dish; ring stand; ring clamp; Bunsen burner; wire gauze; electronic scale; NaHCO3; HCl solution; scientific calculator

Gas Laws: (Virtual Exercise) sealed container with movable lid (similar to a syringe) and attached heater apparatus; thermometer; graphical analysis

Mixtures and Solutions Lab: students may choose between candy chromatography or ink chromatography

Candy chromatography- candy with dye (m&ms or skittles); pencil; ruler; filter paper or coffee filter; water; container such as a measuring cup or mug

Ink chromatography- filter paper; different brands of black; felt tip markers; pencil; ruler; filter paper or coffee filter; water; container such as a measuring cup or mug

Calorimetry Lab: (Virtual Exercise) electronic balance; petri dish; thermometer; test tube; test tube clamp; hot plate; calorimeter; sample of Al (s); sample of Zn (s); sample of Cu (s); sample of Fe (s); and an unknown metal sample

pH Titration Lab: (Virtual Exercise) burette; graduated cylinder; Erlenmeyer flask; pH meter; 0.25 M NaOH solution; HCl solution of unknown concentration; Phenolphthalein

Equilibrium Lab: Small objects with two sides (suggestions: pennies; m&ms; skittles); scientific calculator; pencil

Half Life and Radioactive Decay: 200 small objects with two sides (suggestions: pennies; m&ms; skittles); Graphical Analysis; scientific calculator; pencil

Using standard Scientific Method outlined by the following questions; describe one typical laboratory assignment associated with this course.

State the problem or concept investigated during this laboratory assignment. (Do oranges stored in a refrigerator have more Vitamin C than oranges picked fresh from a tree?) Formulate a hypothesis for this problem using ‚Äúif/then‚Äù statements. (If oranges picked fresh from a tree have more Vitamin C; then juice from these oranges will take longer to turn a starch solution blue.)

The concept of this lab is to model half-life using a sample to represent radioactive atoms.

Hypothesis: If the candies represent radioactive atoms with a half-life; then after 3 seconds; or one shake; only half of the candies will remain.

Describe the experiment you performed to prove or disprove your hypothesis. List all essential materials. Describe each step you performed in the experiment.

Materials:

200 M&M¬Æ candies; pennies; or other small candy/item with two distinct sides

shoe box or other small box with a lid

scientific calculator

pencil

Procedure:

Place 200 candies in the shoe box; lettered sides up. The candies will stand for atoms of a hypothetical radioactive element.

Cover the box and shake it vigorously for three seconds. This is one time interval.

Remove the lid and take out any candies (atoms) that are now showing lettered sides down. These candies represent the atoms that decayed during the time interval. Count and record in a data table the number of decayed atoms and the number of remaining; not decayed; atoms.

Continue repeating steps two and three until all atoms have decayed or you have reached 30 seconds on the data table.

Repeat the entire experiment (steps 1‚Äì4) a second time and record all data.

Describe the results of your experiment or study. Use graphs and charts where appropriate.

Trial 1:

Time (seconds)

Radioactive atoms remaining (not decayed)

Atoms decayed

0

200

0

3

102

98

6

51

51

9

28

23

12

12

16

15

5

7

18

2

3

21

2

0

24

1

1

27

0

1

30

0

0

Trial 2:

Time (seconds)

Radioactive atoms remaining (not decayed)

Atoms decayed

0

200

0

3

107

93

6

57

50

9

34

23

12

16

18

15

6

10

18

3

3

21

1

2

24

1

0

27

0

1

30

0

0

Calculations

1. Determine the average number of atoms remaining (not decayed) at each three-second time interval by adding the results from the two trials and dividing by two.

Time (seconds)

Radioactive atoms remaining

0

200

3

104.5

6

54

9

31

12

14

15

5.5

18

2.5

21

1.5

24

1

27

0

30

0

2. Create a table that compares time to the average number of atoms remaining at each time interval.

Time (seconds)

Radioactive atoms remaining

0

200

3

104.5

6

54

9

31

12

14

15

5.5

18

2.5

21

1.5

24

1

27

0

30

0

3. Create a graph of your data showing the average number of atoms remaining versus time.

Explain your data or results. Give an analysis of your experiment.

The graph exhibits an exponential decay indicating the exponential relationship of the decay of radioactive isotopes and time. The half-life of an atom can be determined using an exponential decay graph such as the one above. From the graph; it can be concluded that the half-life of this particular ‚Äúatom‚Äù is about 3 seconds; or one interval. As time moves on; less and less atoms remain until eventually no atoms will remain. Adding more candies; will not change the shape of the graph; as the half-life will still show the same pattern of decay.

Write a conclusion for your study. Was your hypothesis supported or refuted?

This lab was performed to show the relationship of an atom‚Äôs decay and time. Graphing remaining atoms versus time; showed an exponential decay pattern. Using this relationship; the atom‚Äôs half-life could be determined. It was determined that the candy atom‚Äôs half-life was 3 seconds; or one shake of the box. This conclusion supports the hypothesis. Possible sources of error include counting mistakes. Counting mistakes could account for slight variations in the curve. Nevertheless; this lab did a thorough job in using candy to model a radioactive atom‚Äôs half-life through decay.

## School country

United States## School state

Arizona## School city

Chandler## School / district Address

650 E Morelos St## School zip code

85225## Requested competency code

Lab Science## Date submitted

## Approved

Yes## Approved competency code

- LPHY
- Physics